Friday, 24 February 2017

The Quest for the Map of Canada

It seems difficult to remember what we did before GPS and Google Maps. We can put the globe in our pockets, but before smartphones and computers, people relied on paper maps to see the world.

The history of the map of Canada starts with Indigenous peoples, but the first known European map of Canada dates to the early 1500s. At the time, cartographers seem to have believed that Eastern Canada and Greenland were part of Asia. Techniques were vastly improved over the next century, and Samuel de Champlain made great strides, mapping as far west as Georgian Bay.

By the time the Diocese of Toronto existed, cartography and publishing were vastly different. Maps were available for common people to own. Here in the archives, we have a great example of a map of Upper and Lower Canada that could have been kept on a bookshelf as a handy reference tool. At first, it looks like any other book:

ARCAT Holograph Collection

HO 02.009

But when you look inside, something is a bit different:

ARCAT Holograph Collection

HO 02.009

After unfolding several layers, the map is fully opened:

ARCAT Holograph Collection

HO 02.009

Though the map is undated, it appears that it was published by Charles Magnus some time after he moved to New York in the 1840s and some time before Canadian confederation in 1867:

ARCAT Holograph Collection

HO 02.009

ARCAT Holograph Collection

HO 02.009

Google Maps might have a lot of useful features, but it doesn't have this kind of flair!

ARCAT Holograph Collection

HO 02.009

A fun decorative detail:

ARCAT Holograph Collection

HO 02.009

And here's our own little corner of Upper Canada:

ARCAT Holograph Collection

HO 02.009

Think about these kinds of maps when your GPS voice is telling you to turn right on Bloor! For a great history of the mapping of Canada, check out the Canadian Encyclopedia. To see more maps of Canada, check out McGill University's W. H. Pugsley Collection of Early Canadian Maps.

Friday, 17 February 2017

Remembering Sir Wilfrid Laurier

Sir Wilfrid Laurier was Canada’s seventh prime minister. His tenure as the first francophone PM – from July 11, 1896, to October 6, 1911 – is currently the longest unbroken term of office for Canada's leader. He still holds the record for the longest-serving leader of a major Canadian political party. During his time as PM, Laurier oversaw the building of another transcontinental railway; added two new provinces, Alberta and Saskatchewan, to the Dominion; and encouraged immigration to Western Canada. Though he certainly had his opposers (such as the Catholic population during the Manitoba Schools Question in that province), Laurier was known as an energetic orator and a fervent proponent of keeping the French and English parts of the country united.

Laurier served in the House of Commons during the episcopacies of five of Toronto's Archbishops. He was first elected to the House of Commons when Archbishop Lynch was Toronto's ordinary. Laurier became PM while Walsh was Archbishop and continued through both O'Connor and McEvay. He died of a stroke at age 77 on February 17, 1919, during McNeil's time as Archbishop.

The Archives has a few documents in its collection about and from Laurier. In this letter to Archbishop O'Connor, typed on Privy Council Canada letterhead, Laurier discusses the claim of one Mr. Moylan:

December 13, 1901
O AB03.28
Archbishop O'Connor fonds

The following is a letter written on Prime Minister's Office letterhead to Archbishop McEvay from Laurier expressing his condolences that he must miss McEvay's installation as Archbishop:

June 16, 1908
ME AA02.22
Archbishop McEvay fonds

This is the cover of the program for Laurier's mass and funeral service held at Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica in Ottawa, February 22, 1919:

MN AH08.18
Archbishop McNeil fonds

Library and Archives Canada posted this video of Laurier's funeral procession and burial, which shows just a few of the fifty thousand people who lined the streets of Ottawa that day to pay their respects:

Friday, 10 February 2017

I've Been Working on the Railroad

On this day in 1906, Prince Rupert was chosen as the name of the terminus of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. In her book Birth of a City: Prince Rupert to 1914, Sue Harper Rowse explains:
"The name for this proposed city was chosen in a nationwide contest sponsored by the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. The company offered a cash prize of $250.00 for the best name for this new Pacific Coast city. The contest rules included the consideration that the name must contain less than ten letters and a maximum of three syllables. More than 5,000 entries were received by the contest closing date of December 15, 1905. Miss Eleanor MacDonald of Winnipeg was declared the winner for the name 'Prince Rupert.'
"Prince Rupert (1619-82) had been born in Prague, the son of Frederick, King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth, daughter of James I of England. Rupert grew up in the Netherlands and studied at Leiden ... A man of many artistic and scientific interests, Rupert also took part in colonial and commercial schemes. On May 2, 1670, King Charles II appointed Rupert - 'Our dear and Entirely Beloved Cousin' - first Governor of Hudson's Bay Company. However, somewhat ironically Prince Rupert never set foot in Canada."  
The location was an ideal spot for the railway terminus because it had a deep, ice-free harbour and was a shorter shipping distance to Asia. The activity that accompanied the building of a new town and railways attracted a lot of ambitious men and women to the area, including many Catholics. In 1913, Archbishop McNeil wrote to the Catholic Church Extension Society explaining the need for more services for the workers:

"Until now the railroads of British Columbia have run mostly east and west. At present two main lines are in course of construction north and south. One of these is part of the Canadian Northern from Yellowhead Pass to Kamloops along the Thompson River. The other is a line from Vancouver to Fort George to connect there with the Grand Trunk Pacific and eventually pass on north to the Peace River Valley. It will take some years to construct the latter. In the meantime a large number of Catholics working on these roads, and many Catholics settling on land in that northern country, will need attention, and sites for future churches should be secured."

March 17, 1913

Archbishop McNeil Fonds
MN AD20.003 a

Archbishop McNeil had been Archbishop of Vancouver for two years before being appointed to Toronto, so his experience with the area made him an ideal advocate for soliciting support and funds for the Catholics in that area. Prince Rupert had a church quite early, but the need was growing in other places. McNeil recognized the need for local administration and expansion of services. What had previously been very much a mission area needed an increased presence of the formal structures of the Catholic Church. At the time of the letter, the Prince Rupert area was the centre of the Prefecture Apostolic of the Yukon and Prince Rupert, and by 1917 it became a Vicariate Apostolic. The boundaries shifted over the years, but in 1967 the territory was elevated as a diocese. The next year, the bishop moved the seat of the diocese to Prince George, where it remains today.

Though the Grand Trunk Pacific didn't fare well, the city it founded flourished as a transport hub. With a population of 12,000, it is a centre of natural resource production and a destination for tourists.

You can read more about the history of the Diocese of Prince George here.

Bonus: Check out the British Columbia Archives, which has many interesting digitized photos, including Prince Rupert under construction, the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, the first Catholic church, and much more.

Friday, 3 February 2017

Record of the Week: Lord Lisgar

Sir John Young, 2nd Baronet and 1st Baron Lisgar, was sworn in as Canada’s second Governor General on February 2, 1869, officially replacing Lord Monck. Lord Lisgar’s time in office was full of growth and upheaval. The Red River Rebellion led by Louis Riel began in his first year, and a Fenian raid occurred six months later. After the Rebellion, Rupert’s Land was finally transferred from the Hudson's Bay Company to the Crown, and Manitoba and British Columbia both joined Canada.

This letter, a copy made at the time of the original, is the only record that the Archives has that relates to Lisgar. In addition to many large national issues, Lisgar dealt with individual ones as well. Here, Archbishop Lynch is requesting clemency for a man named Clifford:

St. Michael's Palace
Toronto March 15, 1872

To His Excellency 
The Right Honorable Baron Lisgar 
Governor General of Canada
&c &c &c

My Lord

I beg to add my recommendation to your Excellency’s clemency in favor of Clifford in the Penitentiary of Kingston. The young man was of exemplary conduct and was remarkable for his simple affection and obedience to his parents. This affection carried too far proved his ruin. His father was accustomed to smuggle and these operations blunted his conscience and hence planned without remorse the burning of his house to get the Insurance money. His Son in an hour of weakness was accessory to the crime of his father, though very much against his will, for, a few moments before the deed was committed he threw himself upon his bed crying and sobbing and saying to his wife “this job will be my death”. The old man, the principal of the plot died in the Penitentiary and his Son’s forebodings will prove true if he be not soon released from prison. He has an aged mother on the brink of the grave who was once very respectable. Your Excellency could hardily exercise your clemency upon a more deserving object than this Clifford.

I have the honor to be
Your Excellency’s most obt servant

L AH17.07
Archbishop Lynch fonds

Due to poor health, Lisgar resigned his position early, only a few months after this letter. He left Canada with his wife shortly afterwards and died in Ireland on October 6, 1876.

Friday, 27 January 2017

Record of the Week: In Their Hour Of Need

This week's record recounts the tale of "The Bell." In the 1820s, the Village of Perth was lacking ways to tell the time, so the residents decided to resolve that issue by acquiring a bell to ring at designated hours, originally for the workers' benefit. However, when the bell was delivered to Perth, there was the (not so) slight problem of where to put it! We at the Archives have no further knowledge of this story or its accuracy, so if you have more information, please share it in the comments section below. It gave us a chuckle and hope it will do the same for you.

About 1820 the settlement of the old Bathurst District was very short of time pieces, both clocks and watches, which caused much trouble to the inhabitants, so a public meeting was held in the then Village of Perth, when it was unanimously agreed by those present, without distinctions of creed or sect to obtain a bell to be rung at stated hours, three times a day so as to warn the working people of the hours of rest and refreshment. Accordingly a bell was purchased in England and shipped at Liverpool to Quebec, whence it was transported to Brockville, and then by ox-team to Perth, but on arrival, it was discovered to the consternation of the subscribers, that they had no place to hang it except in the Roman Catholic Church, and as the larger number of the contributors were Protestants, this at first caused quite a discussion. But soon a friendly arrangement was arrived at by which the bell was to be hung in the Roman Catholic belfry, and to be for all time to come rung at 6 A.M., noon and six P.M. for the general benefit. Now the Priest at that time was Father John Macdonell, who was esteemed by all, without respect of creed, for his kind lovable nature, and was equally welcome in the homes of the Prostestant's [sic] as of his own flock. Father John was a highlander, the son I have heard of a British Officer, but he never thoroughly mastered the English tongue, but this did not interfere with the general friendliness between him and the inhabitants. The bell was hung, and after mass on the first Sunday when it had been rung, Father John, read out for the edification of his flock, the names of the chief Protestant subscribers to the cost, and added his own quaint remarks about each as they have came down to me. "Mr. M---s is a goot man an exceedingly goot man, She paid ta freight on ta bell all the way from Liverpool, She is almost a Catholic, and you should pray for her. Dr. W----n, is a goot man, She put her hand in her trousers pocket and gave two pounds for the bell, She is a goot man.["] So on he went for some time, till he came to the name of a very rigid Protestant, who however was very intimate with the Priest, but fond of playing practical jokes on the simple old priest. Now was the time for revenge, reading out his name, he said "Mr. ------ is a very goot man, she gave a pound for the bell but she is a most tamnable heretic". All the parties connected with this story have long since passed away, but they had nothing but the kindest feelings to each other and the old bell still rings as of yore.

"The Bell," author unknown

MN AS05.05
Archbishop McNeil fonds

Friday, 20 January 2017

You've Come a Long Way, Baby!

This week we are sharing a letter from an important figure in the history of the Archdiocese, the Honorable James Baby.

The Honorable James Baby
Baby (pronounced Baw-bee) was born in Detroit in 1763 and educated in Quebec. He became a respected businessman in Lower Canada and was appointed to a position in Upper Canada by Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe. He served in various roles but was eventually appointed to Inspector General in 1815, when he moved to York.    

As a French Catholic in York, his options for practicing his faith were limited. Though land had been obtained by trustees for the Catholic community in the early years of the century, no church had been built, and visits by priests were infrequent. In 1821, Baby and the other trustees sold the original property and obtained ten acres near modern-day Queen and Parliament Streets. It was up to Baby to raise funds for and oversee the building of the first church between Sandwich and Kingston, which opened its doors in 1822 as St. Paul's.

Though he wrote many letters to Bishop Macdonell, we chose to share this pivotal moment in York's Catholic history, in which Baby tells the bishop that the land is being cleared for the new church. It is strange to think of ten acres of land in downtown Toronto needing to be cleared of trees, but that's how it was at the time!

My Dear Lord,

It gives me pleasure to be able to inform you that what was in contemplation during your stay here has been matured since your departure. His Excellency has been pleased to sanction (indeed confirmed) the recommendation of the Council upon the petition presented in your name and Trustees in behalf of the Roman Catholics of this place and its vicinity. The ground (two blocks each of 5 acres as per the plan you saw) are granted. They were estimated at £20 per acre - £200 in the whole on the annual payment of interest or rent. This sum to be redeemed at the option or pleasure of the Trustees. I hope I have not erred in comprising Ten instead of Five acres: we may relinquish the other five if it is thought advisable. For my part I have no hesitation to say that I would prefer taking the whole than the one half for I have no doubt that at no distant period the extra five will be found not only very valuable but most useful, particularly if you should be enabled to mature your plan of erecting a public school for young girls.  

The ground or spot where the church or chapel is intended to be erected is getting cleared: there will be tomorrow a Bee or collection of people to forward the work. In a few days I shall take steps to contract for the materials as well as for the undertaking of the building, the dimensions of which I will take take care not to be too contracted nor to exceed much our expected means.

I hope you have continued in good health and that you have reached your home in a comfortable manner.

I have been a good deal indisposed ever since the next Thursday after your departure from this place. I am however getting better.

I beg to subscribe myself with the most sincere respect.

My Dear Lord, your most obedient humble servant

J Baby

M AB01.02
Bishop Macdonell Fonds

The church that Baby built was the spiritual home for Toronto Catholics until St. Michael's Cathedral was built in the 1840s. It was the site of one of the earliest Catholic schools in the city, which still exists today. Though the building has since been replaced, St. Paul's is still an active parish serving downtown Toronto almost 200 years later. Baby's vision of a place for Catholics to gather and worship has endured. With his help, Toronto's Catholic community flourished and grew to be what it is today.

Old St. Paul's Church, Power Street

Photo published in The Story of St. Paul's Parish, Toronto, by Rev. E. Kelly, 1922, p. 45.

Friday, 13 January 2017

Bless you!

It's wintertime, and that often means an increase in the number of colds and other illnesses that can leave us feeling miserable for a few days or even weeks. Updating one's Facebook status has become the common way of informing friends and strangers alike, sometimes in a very detailed manner, that a sickness and its corresponding frustration are present. People have not changed much over time in this regard. This week, we are featuring correspondence covering a range of ailments and how the writers handled the unfortunate situations in which they found themselves.

Some people intend to follow doctor's orders to rest:

"I deeply regret that I cannot enjoy your kind hospitality this evening as I am suffering from a nasty cold & a sore throat & in view of the meeting tonight the Dr. has advised me to remain indoors."

Letter from Thomas H. Grattan Esmonde to Abp. Lynch,
December 28, 1887

L AH32.115
Archbishop Lynch fonds

Or consider taking a sick day:

"I am at present under the weather with a heavy cold which took hold of me last week, and which seems to be developing instead of diminishing. If it does not relax its grip before next Tuesday, I shall not venture to go to Toronto."

Letter from William S. Macdonell to Abp. McEvay,
March 17, 1909

ME AF04.15
Archbishop McEvay fonds

Others, however, continue to work:

"Sick ten days bad cold[.] I endorse letter[.] Keep me posted on events[.]"

Telegram from Bp. Cleary to Abp. Walsh,
February 14, 1885

W AB02.02
Archbishop Walsh fonds

Some people blame the weather or a pesky draft for their illness:

"I regret to have to inform your Grace that the Bishop contracted a very severe cold, whilst looking after the works going on in the Cathedral. The weather is cold, and the windows being entirely open in the Church, removed in fact, for the placing of the stained-glass, his Lordship who could not absent himself lest a mistake might be made, took the inevitable cold and the kidneys have been seized by it, so that Senator Sullivan has insisted on his remaining at home for some days at least, until the present symptoms pass away by care and rest."

Letter from Rev. Thomas Kelly to Abp. Lynch,
October 27, 1886

L AD01.141
Archbishop Lynch fonds

Sometimes a person suffers from something more serious than a regular cold and is quite distressed:

"You will observe from my hand-writing that some great change has taken place in my constitution. ... About a month ago, I became the victim of acute rheumatism, the pain of which continued to become more and more intense until Sunday evening, the 29th ultimo it shot from the left shoulder through the heart and so prostrated me that my medical advisers believed I would not survive until morning. ... My general health is improving, but the left arm still continues to suffer excruciating pain, and is, since the Sunday just named, entirely useless."

Letter from Canon John Woods to Bp. de Charbonnel,
Trinity Sunday, 1859

C AB15.22
Bishop de Charbonnel fonds

And we all have at least one friend who provides way too much information:

"Here I am, all alone, my companions gone along last night to Charlottetown, leaving me sick in the hotel. But, thanks to God, I am usually cheerful in sickness, and I take to giving you an account of myself. ... The night before St. James' day, having dined on fish, I got cramps and diarrhea -- Irish cholera -- which continued for six days. I was four days in Westport without eating a morsel of food during that period of exhausting flux. ... My leg has been sore since Tuesday night and I required help to walk. I believed it to be the sting of a spider or 'black fly' in the shin. I expected all to be well in a few days, I did not intend accompanying my guests beyond Montreal, as I was unable to walk, and the pain was intense; but they coerced me and I agreed to proceed. But during dinner here last evening ... I suffered more pain than before and found the leg inflamed more. ... I sent for Dr. Hingston who declared my ailment to be erysipelas, which demands absolute rest for the leg and medicinal treatment for myself."

First four pages of letter from Bp. Cleary to Abp. Lynch,
August 8, 1885

L AD 01.130
Archbishop Lynch fonds

We hope this week's blog finds you all in good health. Take care of yourselves!